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From Instruction Sheets to Woodworker's Manuals


Earliest Evidence of the Use of the Term?

Earliest Evidence of the Application of Instruction Sheets?

First Development of a Woodworker's Manual/Textbook That Follows System Principles

From my research, the suggestion of creating a textbook/manual expressly designed for handwork in woodworking courses comes from America's implementation in the 1870s of the so-called "Russian System". And the natural next question: -- How best to implement the system?

(I include the concept of "instruction sheet" in this equation because instruction sheets were off-shoots of early woodworker's manuals designed for use in woodworking courses, and -- as I'll demonstrate with actual examples -- significantly influenced how woodworker's manuals are written.)

Following Robert W Selvidge, the authority on instruction sheet pedagogy,

The instruction sheet is a teaching device of great value where directions are to be given or where general principles or facts are to be presented to members of a group who are unequal in attainment, ability or aptitude.


It has found quite general application in the school shop, the science laboratory, and in industry, but its value is not confined to those fields. It is, perhaps, the most efficient and economical system of individual instruction yet devised. (continued below)

It permits independent progress among the members of a group and makes it possible to take into account individual differences. The favor it has found in shop and laboratory is not because the individual differences among pupils are greater in such work but because the differences are more readily recognized and more effectively dealt with....

Source: Robert W. Selvidge, Individual Instruction Sheets Peoria, Ill.: The Manual Arts Press, 1926, page 5.

My example of an "exercise", (i.e., a component in a project: "piece of furniture being constructed", is the mortise and tenon joint, in the "iframe" section just below).

The "Russian Exercises" System

    Development of the Russian system of tool instruction had involved the linking of two key strategies. Master technicians had analyzed their production work, recognizing in their complex and specialized activities the essential tool skills involved in forging, wood and metal turning, joinering, and fitting activities. In concert with the identification of these essential tool skills, educators at the trade school had pursued the strategy of separating preliminary instruction in the use of tools from the student's involvement with factory-based production activities. The two strategies, thus linked, spelled out a new methodology. At no great expense, the school had established modestly equipped shops in which beginning students received systematic instruction in the care and use of tools relevant to fundamental activities in the mechanic arts. Systematic instruction involved students in a series of exercises graduated in levels of difficulty from basic operations to more complex combinations of tool skills. After each operation was demonstrated, students performed exercises in groups so that careful supervision could be kept. Group instruction supported by task analysis, thus, constituted both the economy and the efficiency of the Russian system.

    Source: William John Schurter, "The Development of the Russian System of Tool Instruction (1763-1893) and Its Introduction Into the U.S. Industrial Education Programs (1876-1893)" Baltimore: University of Maryland, 1982, pages 120-121

Instruction Sheets Introduced in America, 1880s

see examples of instruction sheets in this 1880s woodworker's manual, Woodworking Tools: How to Use Them

Instruction Sheets Introduced in America, 1880s

Samuel Jesse Vaughn and Arthur Beverly Mays, Content and Methods of the Industrial Arts? 1924- pages 26-27; Hugh Bernard Wood, Foundations of Curriculum Planning and Development? 1960, page 456

Source: Henry Holman, Pestalozzi: An Account of His Life and Work London: Longmans, 1908, page 242

The "Russian Exercises" system was known in this country as early as 1873, but in 1876 an exhibition of the work of the Imperial Russian Technical School at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, created a real interest in this form of technical instruction. As shown by plate 1, the "Russian Exercises" were a series of abstract exercises, arranged in a logical manner, very technical, and calling for very exact measurements and tool execution. It was felt that these exercises were fundamental, that is, created a foundation, to all forms of advanced technical study. Another point about this system was that group instruction was possible, from 25 to 35 boys could be handled at one time by one instructor. It was welcomed, there­fore, by the educators of the time, who, though they did not favor specific trade training in educational institutions, were aware of the growing demand for some sort of technical education on the part of the expanding manufacturing groups in this country. They felt that this system offered a good general mechanical training.

This photo is what Coates used in History of the manual training school of Washington University Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1923. (Published by the US Bureau of Educationm as Bulletin no 3, 1923.)



While given at first in the form shown by Plate 1, the scheme was modified later in an attempt to make it more pedagogical, by the introduction of "scroll saw" work, and "slip" or "flat" work -- the making of joints in the flat, using thin wood.

industrial_school_association_1881As Klein notes, when Sloyd was introduced, no books dealt with this system. Instruction depended upon models and charts. Wood-working tools -- how to use them: A manual -- by the Industrial School Association, Boston, and Bench Work in Wood, by W F M Goss, printed in 1882 and 1887, show this type of work. The University of Chicago shops have a collection of the work done under this system, inherited by them from the old Chicago Manual Training School.


According to William Ware, the primary lessons were prepared by Channing Whitaker and Raymond Chapell with the assistance of Alonza Folsom in the winter of 1877-1878. These lessons were used by Chapell while he was teaching in the Church Street School maintained by the Association, and in the School of Mechanic Arts. The first lesson was presented as a circular for general distribution to illustrate the work of the school, and it attracted much attention. It proved of such general interest at the time that it was later printed in The Polytechnic Review, of Philadelphia, and in the Forty-First Annual Report of the Massachusetts Board of Education for 1876-1877. [34 : vi]

Source: Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Thirteenth Annual Catalogue . . . , 1877-78, page 61; see also Wood-working Tools: How to Use Them, A Manual By Industrial School Association, Boston, Boston Industrial School Association Published by Ginn & Heath, for the Industrial School Association, 1881.

According to Ray M. Stombaugh, Professor of Industrial Arts, Illinois State University in Normal,

This lesson appears to be a forerunner of the present-day job sheets, which still retain such characteristics as separate headings for materials, the arrangement of sequences by definite steps with careful directions for using tools and the cautions to be observed. There seems to have been little thinking and planning left for the pupil to do. His activity consisted principally in reading and practicing the directions given.

The course set up by the Association was built around a series of exercises in the use of tools, and the original plan of the Association was to prepare a detailed lesson for each exercise in the course. The report indicates that eleven of these lessons were prepared and then presented in the school maintained by the Association before the plan was changed. Ware comments to the effect that after the first lessons were prepared it became evident that so explicit and complete a work as was first contemplated would occupy too much time in preparation, and, when done, might be too large and costly to meet the ends that the association had chiefly in view. It therefore was decided to use only those portions of school is designed to afford such students as have completed the ordinary grammar school courses, an opportunity to continue the elementary scientific and literary studies, together with mechanical and free hand drawing, while receiving theoretical and practical instruction in the use of the typical hand and machine tools for working in iron and wood.

The Russian system

Thus the United States got its first manual training inspiration from Russia. The account of how the Russian system emerged are laid out with great detail by William John Schurter, in 1982, in his doctoral dissertation, As early as 1868, Victor Della Vos, director of the St. Petersburg imperial Technical School for government engineers, introduced shop instruction and tool work into his school and thus started what has since been known as the Russian System of manual training.

This system undertook to give scientific tool instruction by a series of exercises that involved in a system­atic and sequential way the fundamental tool processes. Della Vos conceived that the way to do this was to analyze the tools, the processes, the crafts, trades, materials into their elements and to arrangements in methodical courses of instruction.

Thus cabinetmaking was analyzed into its various forms or elements of construction. This resulted long list of the different kinds of joints used in cabinetwork. These joints were abstracted from the objects of which they were parts and were arranged in a series to give a progressive course or sequence in tool processes involved.

The worker was confronted with models drawings or joints, detailed explanations of their instruction, and careful demonstrations of the tool involved.

The construction of a specified number of joints and experience in a definite number of tool processes were the prerequisite to any attempt at even starting of cabinetwork.

The theory of the Russian work was expressed in the slogan,'' Instruction before Construction." The course for government engineers inaugurated by Della Vos in the Imperial Technical School of St. Petersburg required six years for completion, ''three for instruction and three for construction." This, of course, is almost the antithesis of the best thought in America now. The slogan in the schools of the United States might fittingly be, "Construction accompanied by Instruction."

Source: Samuel Jesse Vaughn and Arthur Beverly Mays, Content and Methods of the Industrial Arts? 1924- pages 26-27.

Need for a "Textbook"

In Boston in 1874, the Industrial School Association experimented with ways of introducing handwork in the schools. Their intent was to implement the Russian system. But introducing a "rigid" program into a school program was problematical: "... if the Russian system is to have any extended application, everything must be done to make such instruction easy and efficient. emgerging out of the deliberations was the conviction that a "textbook" -- "a text which showed every detail essential to the best performance of each manipulation".

For the Association, in the end, the best means of incorporating the principles of the Russian system was that the Russian system could be best effected through systematic instruction.

Thus out of this so-called experiment emerged a textbook. A committee was authorized to employ the best sources available in the preparation of such a manual. [Source: MASSACHUSETTS. Board of Education Forty-First Annual Report . . . , 1876-77, Appendix, page 220.] According to William Ware, Chairman of the committee, credits to thirteen persons as having made important contributions. [34 : WHITAKER, CHANNING and OTHERS.Wood Working Tools; How to Use Them. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1884, is a textbook comprising directions and exercises in elementary woodworking tool processes. pages v-vi.] ] The original intention of the Association was to have the committee engage certain "specialists" who were first to prepare and then revise a series of primary lessons in the use of woodworking hand tools, to be followed by a similar series of more advanced lessons in application of these tools to the production of typical forms in carpentry and joinery. [221 : 220]

"General instructions to guide the head of each family in filling out the family schedule which accompanies this instruction sheet. The object of the present census is to find the exact numbers, ages and occupations, and the conditions, in many other respects, of the people of this commonwealth. ..."--p. [2]. Signed: Carroll D. Wright, chief. George H. Long, deputy-chief. Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 33 Pemberton Square, Boston, May 1, 1875.

Source: Special Instructions Relating to Each Inquiry, to Guide the Head of Each Family in Filling Out the Family Schedule which Accompanies this Instruction Sheet. By Carroll Davidson Wright, Massachusetts, Bureau of Statistics of Labor Published by s.n., 1875, 2 pages

... the graphic representation of the human figure, the particular figure chosen being that of the postman. The data were analyzed to determine the interests and abilities of the children and the school grades at which the characteristics found were most marked. It should be understood that excellence or skill in drawing as such had no place in this analysis. The samples furnishing the data used as the basis of this study were crayon or pencil drawings, measuring six by nine inches, made by school children from the kindergarten to the eighth grade, inclusive. They were obtained from six different cities in response to letters sent to supervisors or teachers of art requesting co-operation in the investigation. An instruction sheet provided for each person presenting the drawing exercise described explicitly the conditions under which the samples were to be produced. The pupils were allowed ten minutes in which to make their drawings after listening to a short story of the postman, in which he was presented in his familiar role of delivering letters from house to house. ...

Source: Elementary School Journal 26 June, 1926, page 760

Continuation Schools

Each of the vocational courses is accompanied by related academic work that will be useful to him on his job. Instruction in all continuation school classes is of necessity individual. Its task is to guide individual pupils into paths that will start them right for life. Therefore, every pupil must be allowed to go in the way that is best for him. This individualization of school work is provided by the use of job instruction sheets which are put into the hands of a pupil for him to accomplish, first, on his own initiative, and then with the help of the teacher. A class usually presents twelve jobs to be done before the pupil can go on to another class. His job instruction sheet will set forth clearly just what each job is, why it is included, to what it is leading, and how it may best be done. This plan reminds one of the Dalton contract plan although it was developed independently, and it works in the same way by allowing every student to progress at his own rate of speed. The ambitious may plough ahead rapidly; the slow pupil is never left back; and yet competition stimulates action.

Source: Josephine Chase, New York at school: a description of the activities and administration of the public schools of the city of New York [New York] : Public Education Association of the City of New York, 1927, page 167.


    When the apprentice reports to the drawing school for the first time he is given a drawing board, which is numbered and must be placed in a corresponding space in the case when not in use. He is told to place his name on his T-square and other supplies, is briefly instructed as to the use of the drawing board, T-square, and scale, and is told how to sharpen his pencil and impressed with the necessity of keeping it sharp. These instructions are made as simple and brief as possible, after which he is given a blueprint sheet, about 5J by 9 inchfe in size, showing how his paper is to be placed on the drawing board and laid out, how the views of the object are to be arranged on the sheet, and the arrangement of the title in the lower right-hand corner.

    He is then handed an instruction sheet and model for the first exercise and is told to go ahead. Usually the first drawing is completed two hours after the boy first reports. The instruction sheets are blueprints, 5£ by 9 inches in size, and contain directions as to just what is to be done, thus relieving the instructor to a considerable extent and enabling him to give his attention to each boy as he may require assistance. The instructor must O. K. each drawing before it is removed from the board, and as soon as one is completed he gives the apprentice the instruction sheet and model for the following one. The first exercises are very simple, but they gradually grow more and more difficult, geometrical principles being introduced as they are found necessary. Accuracy is insisted on from the start. Lettering is taught incidentally in connection with the title on the sheet. 14883-10 4

    Source: United States Bureau of Education Bulletin 1909

actual example of instruction sheet in use here, in Industrial Arts Magazine

    The machine was all right. The instruction sheet - written by one of the factory men - was all wrong. No one could get head or tail out of it. The advertising man found cases where the wrong electrical connections were made, resulting in no connection at all; attempts to operate it at the wrong end; and, most painfully amusing of all, many instances where it was set up upside down!

    Source: Printers' Ink, Decker Communications, inc., v.105 1918 Oct-Dec, page 137

Schematic of an Instruction Sheet

[need to integrate theses by edison elbert field and hoyt h london; london yet to be photocopied, field in file folder]

As a teaching device the Instruction Sheet is of great value where directions are to be given or where general principles or facts are to be presented to members of a group who are unequal in attainment, ability or altitude. While it does not displace the teacher nor relieve him of the major portion of his duties, the Instruction Sheet changes the strategy of how the teacher approaches his class, particulalry by allowing more efficiant use of time.

Now considered one of the standard means of employed in shop teaching, Instruction Sheets make possible changes in shop organization and layouts that allow a variety of activities in woodwork classrooms, in place of the old program activities. [examples of old program activities]

However, the use of Instruction Sheets need not be confined to classroom settings. Instead, as proven by such authors of woodworker's manuals as Verne C. Fryklund and Armand J Laberge -- in General Shop Woodworking -- the concept of the Instruction Sheet can be incorporated into woodworker's manuals.

ca 1800, Was the Progressive Education Theorist, Henry Pestalozzi, the first to use the concept "instruction sheet"?

Clive Ashwin, "Pestalozzi and the Origins of Pedagogical Drawing", British Journal of Educational Studies 29 No 2 June 1981, pages 138-151

Manual Work and Physical Training.

Of this Pestalozzi says

"In endeavouring to impart to the child those practical abilities which every man stands in need of, we ought to follow essentially the same progress as in the communication of knowledge; beginning from an alphabet of abilities, if I may so express myself: that is to say, from the simplest practical exercises, which, being combined with each other, would serve to develop in the child a general fund of ability, to be applied to whatever purpose circumstances might render it necessary in after life.

"Such an alphabet, however, has not yet been found, and that from the obvious reason that it has not been sought for. I am not inclined to think that it would be very difficult to discover it, especially if the research were made with the same zeal with which even the trivial abilities connected with the operation of money-getting are attended to. If once discovered it would be of essential benefit to mankind. It ought to comprise the simplest performances of the bodily organs of action, such as striking, carrying, throwing, pushing, pulling, turning, twisting, swinging, etc. Whatever manipulations may occur in any calling may be reduced to some one or more of the simple actions and their combinations. The alphabet of abilities should therefore consist of a complete succession of them all, arranged in the order in which they follow each other ...

Many principles underlying manual training school practices come from kindergarten pedagogical theories, and for much of the theories , we are indebted Friedrich Froebel, and thus indirectly to Pestalozzi, but also, before 1900, Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and even Francis Bacon. But it was reserved for Russia to solve the problem of tool instruction by the laboratory process, and make it the foundation of a great reform in education. The initiatory step was taken in 1868 by Victor Della-Vos, Director of the Imperial Technical School of Moscow. The following statement is extracted from the account given by Director Della- Vos of the exhibit of the Moscow school at Philadelphia (Centennial of 1876), and at the Paris Exposition in 1878, as best showing the inception of the new education:

After 1900, we can add to the earlier theorists mentioned above, such names as John Dewey, Lev Semnovich Vygotski, and Jean Piaget.

(In my other life, these names were very familiar, because they are associated with the current literature of critical thinking, even though they worked in the first half of the 20th century. However, as this article -- Anuradha A. Gokhale, "Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking", Journal of Technical Education 7 NO. 1 Fall 1995 -- notes, the theories of Dewey, Vygotsky, and Piaget have also been appropriated into Industrial Arts scholarship.)

If Pestalozzi had applied his idea of an alphabet of abilities to the teaching of the manual arts,he would, in all probability, have developed a system similar to that outlined in Russia in 1868".

Source: Charles Alpheus Bennett, History of Manual and Industrial Education Up to 1870, page 122.

Other Sources: Henry Holman, Pestalozzi: An Account of His Life and Work London: Longmans, 1908.

The A B C of Observation, or Lessons in the Observation of Form. (A B C der Anschauung oder Anschauungs- lehre der Massverhaltnisse.} The book is really the work of Buss. " The child is taught to notice and to name the differences in form and relation between several objects."

Pointing to the horizontal lines the child is told, " These are horizontal lines," and, pointing to the top line, " That is the first top horizontal line.'' The child repeats this, and learns also to reply in answer to questions, '' That is the second, fifth, seventh line," etc. The same occurs with the perpendicular lines. Next they are compared according to their length or shortness and divided into equal parts, to the measure of the first line. For example, the child repeats " The first line is as long as the half of the second line." For correcting the drawings transparent sheets of horn were used, upon which the figures were scratched. After the straight line comes the square, and then the circle. The instruction progresses until the pupil can draw correctly both these figures, without ruler or compass, in the most varied combinations, and until finally he frees himself from the leading-strings of the method by feeling "the necessity for independent progress," and becoming conscious of having in himself the independent power for such progress."

Source: John Alfred Green, The Educational Ideas of Pestalozzi London:W.B. Clive, 1905, pages 215-216.

How Instruction Sheets Are Used in the Workshop

mini-textbooks, they can free up the instructor in the courses, after intro sessions, "30" students doing their own thing ie, project, meaning that the instructor can cruise from boy to boy, as needed not all "instructions" can be placed on paper, though, meaning that each boy frequently needs "to go beyond the information given" of his Instruction Sheet

to go beyond the information given

Two recurrent themes in the cognitive psychology of Jerome Bruner, a Harvard University professor, are central components in teaching students critical thinking skills. The first is the notion that the acquisition of knowledge, be it

(1) the recognition of a pattern,
(2) the attainment of a concept,
(3) the solution of a problem, or
(4) the development of a scientific theory,

is an active process.

The individual is neither (1) a passive recipient of information nor (2) a bundle of stimulus-response connections.

Instead, regard he/she as an active participant in the knowledge-getting process,


who selects and transforms information,
who constructs hypotheses and
even in the face of inconsistent or discrepant evidence, alters those hypotheses .

Thus to no surprise, the important feature of Bruner's approach to education, to encourage the learner to participate actively in the process of learning produces a condition where, the instructor should emulate Socrates and -- where possible -- rely on teaching in what Bruner calls the hypothetical mode, so that -- with respect to the transmission and discovery of knowledge -- teacher and the student coexist in a more co-operative position.

And, as much as possible, the student should be encouraged to work things out for himself, to organize evidence so that -- applying personal conjectures and insights -- is able to go beyond it, to participate actively in learning, in solving problems, in selecting solutions, that make learning something successful.

The second recurrent thence that is particularly germane to Bruner's views on pedagogy is closely related to the first.

When a person actively constructs knowledge, he does so by relating incoming information to a previously acquired psychological frame of reference.

This frame of reference -- variously labeled with such terms a internal model, internal cognitive structure, generic coding system, and/or system of representation -- gives meaning and organization to the regularities in experience, and allows the learner "to go beyond the information given".

It is in connection with the concept of a mental internal model that Bruner's work on cognitive development has important implications for a theory of instruction

Most significantly, the predominant form of this internal model changes qualitatively in the course of growth. The implication of this notion is that the task of the instructor is to translate, to convert, new knowledge into a form to be accommodated by a receptive mind.

My argument, however, relates only to the concept introduced by Vella-Dos, the "Instruction Sheet". Other parts of the Vella Dos system, after being integrated into a reformulated "manual training system", in 1880, failed because, the apprenticeship from the guild system, did not succesfully translate to American conditons. Regardless, the Instruction Sheet system was adapted and flourished, because -- as seen below -- was quickly integrated into the woodworker manual Wood-working Tools: How to Use Them published in 1881. (click here to go to the iframe concerning this book below.) Source: Adapted from Jermey M. Anglin's "Introduction [to Chapter on Education]", in Jerome Bruner, Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing, edited by Jeremy M Anglin New York: W W Norton, 1973, pages 397-398;

Other Sources: Roger de Baron Guimps, Pestalozzi New York: D. Appleton, 1897; Susan Meabon Bartow IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF THE RANGE OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS PHILOSOPHY AND A COMPARISON OF PHILOSOPHY WITH ACTUAL CLASSROOM PRACTICES: A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Miami University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Department of Industrial Education, Miami University Oxford, Ohio, 19?; Paul R Pintrich; "The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning", Review of Educational Research 67 Spring 1997; Raymond McInnis "Why Library Schools Need to Change Their Curriculum," in "Papers from the Seminar, "Russian-American Seminar on Critical Thinking and the Library," Moscow, June 1-5, 1992, in "Occasional Papers," nos. 200/201, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, " October, 1995, pp. 127-150; Theodore Lewis and Karen F. Zuga, "A Conceptual Frameworkof Ideas and Issues in Technology Education" April 30, 2005

"Insiders" vs "Outsiders" [under construction]

Increasingly educators agree upon the need to discard linear developmental conceptions of learning.1

What have we learned today about learning that is new?

To answer this question, we must first distinguish between "education" and "training". Learning does not occur in isolation; often it occurs not individually, but collaboratively, in groups or communities. In collaborative learning, retention rates of both knowledge and skills are high. Source: Kenneth A. Bruffee, "Liberal Education and the Social Justification of Belief" Liberal Education 68, No. 2 1982, pages 95-114; Interesting, on google scholar, this article, over 50 years old, is cited almost 100 times by other articles.

  1. Education, as a form of learning, involves a transformation of values in the individual: Among the many differences between training and education is that while training shapes a person's mind and body to perform certain tasks, education helps the person develop as a human being.
  2. Education includes shaping "attitudes," which is more a "gestalt" than a specific set of skills and knowledges: The psychologist, J. J. Gallagher, claims that "[E]ducators are increasingly viewing learners as bundles of knowledge structures that become increasingly sophisticated and hiearchical as they gain experience."
  3. While skills cannot be learned apart from knowledge, both skills and knowledge are an essential part of education.
  4. To become "well-educated" without possessing the skill of reading critically would be difficult if not impossible.
  5. Education, then, is not indoctrination. </p>
  6. Like love, someone has said, education cannot be forced. Also like love, it requires other people (including role models and mentors) to foster it.

As good or better than the metaphors of growth and development -- in the sense that learning is "transformation" -- is the equally familiar one of an "outsider" trying to "get into" a discourse community.

  1. <p> For the outsider to get into a discourse community is to begin to become literate in that community--a metaphor that pictures the movement of a learner at first situated outside a bounded field, who then enters and so "joins" the community by acting like its members. </p>
  2. <p>As the personal cognitive shifts occur, "students" begin to act and think more like an "insider", privy to the "disciplinary secrets" of a particular, group or culture -- like, say, woodworkers -- rather than the "outsider," wistfully looking in. (This observation echoes the claims of Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe, made in the 1940s, who argue that learning involves shifting social and intellectual values. <strong>Source</strong>: Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe, "Conduct Knowledge and Acceptance of New Values" <strong><em>Journal of Social Issues</em></strong> 1, No. 3 1945, pages 53-64. ) </p>
  3. <p>The traditional "stair-step model" of learning leaves the student a solitary sojourner, leaving little place for a teacher to stand. </p>
  4. <p>The "discourse community model," however, puts students in the middle of the learning process, centering on the interaction of student (or, better, "apprentice") and teacher (or, better, "mentor") with learning seen as a product of the relationship. </p>
  5. <p>These relationships work best when teachers recognize the importance of attending to students' learning styles: "Literacy [in an scholarly culture] is shared knowledge and therefore necessarily collective.”6 </p>
  6. <p>Perhaps the most significant matter to learn is the skill of reading discourse -- such as the discourse of woodworking -- and beginning to obtain a command of the specialized vocabulary employed within specific disciplines. </p>

As conducive to learning as the Instruction Sheet technique outlined above sounds, conditions that existed in thenation, in the education system, almost overall, were against

youth employment no compuslory attendance laws teaching was not consistent -- include survey that includes minnesota

Lawrence A Cremin, a preminent historian of American education, captures the essence of what instruction sheets meant to American industrial education.

The pivotal moment is 1876, at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition

First, the Della Vos system of training, which originated in Russia, was adopted by many schools. ...


"... of exercises that involved in a systematic and sequential way the fundamental tool processes. Della Vos conceived that the way to do this was to analyze the tools, the processes, the crafts, trades, and materials into their elements and to arrange these elements in methodical courses of instruction. Thus cabinet making was analyzed into the various forms or elements of construction."

From the beginning, the relation of education to national progress had been a key theme of the Centennial. The Exposition had boasted literally hundreds of displays, varying all the way from a case of botanical specimens contributed by the schoolchildren of Indiana to a full-scale model of a Swedish country schoolhouse. It is not surprising, though, that pedagogical innovations associated rather directly with industrial prosperity had come under the closest scrutiny. In the end, a few displays of tools from Moscow and St. Petersburg literally stole the show; for these objects showed the West for the first time that Russian educators had finally scored a breakthrough on the thorny problem of how to organize meaningful, instruc­tive shop training as an essential adjunct of technical educa­tion.

The key to their solution lay in the work of Victor Della Vos, director of the Moscow Imperial Technical School. When the School had been created by royal decree in the spring of 1868, the effort had been to complement the work in mathematics, physics, and engineering with on-the-job training in construc­tion shops built expressly for teaching purposes. These work­shops were actually designed to produce saleable goods, but their primary task was to provide apprenticeships by which students at the Technical School might master the practical phases of their work. Della Vos from the beginning had re­garded the workshop method as inefficient and overly expen­sive, and in order to ready the boys for their apprenticeships, he had organized instruction shops separate from and pre­liminary to the construction shops. It was in working out a program for these instruction shops that Della Vos had hap­pened upon his radical pedagogical innovation .2

"Everybody is well aware," he reasoned, "that the mastery of any art-drawing, music, painting-is readily attained only when the first attempts are subject to a law of gradation, the pupil following a definite method or school, and surmounting, little by little and by certain degrees, the difficulties encountered." 3

Why not work out similar methods for teaching the mechanic arts?

Della Vos and his assistants set out to do just this. They organized an instruction shop for each distinctive art or trade-one for joinery, one for blacksmithing, one for carpentry, and so on; they analyzed each trade into its com­ponent skills and arranged these in pedagogical order; and they combined drawings, models, and tools into a series of graded exercises by which a student could, under supervision, progress toward a requisite standard of skill. That the new system quickly proved itself was compellingly demonstrated by the swift disappearance of the construction shops from the Moscow Imperial Technical School.

It was the drawings, the models, and the tools illustrating the Della Vos methods that the Russians exhibited at Phila­delphia. It is said that President John D. Runkle of the Mas­sachusetts Institute of Technology was strolling through Ma­chinery Hall one day when he happened upon the Russian display cases .4 American education was never the same there­after.

Runkle had been wrestling with the shop problem at M.I.T., and for him the Russian solution held "the philosophi­cal key to all industrial education." 5 As soon as he returned from Philadelphia, he recommended the organization of in­struction shops at the Institute, and on August 17, 1876, the trustees established not only shops for the engineering stu­dents, but a new School of Mechanic Arts to provide manual education "for those who wish to enter upon industrial pur­suits, rather than to become scientific engineers." s

Viktor Karlovich Della-Vos (1829-1890) celebrated as being the director and chief architect of Russian manual training -- received a degree in physical and mathematical sciences from Moscow University in 1853. In 1854, he began his teaching, first as a teacher of Russian language, later advanced mathematics in 1858. In 1860 he went to Paris to study the theoretical and practical aspects of machine tool building. He also spent time in London studying farm machinery. Returning to Russia in 1864, Della-Vos was made a professor of mechanics at the Petrovsky Academy. In 1867 he was made director of a Moscow vocational school, and in 1868 he was made director of the Moscow Imperial Technical Academy. His plans for the inclusion of theoretical content in workshop and laboratory courses were unique in their simplicity and detailed organization. His inclusion of manual training at the postsecondary level became famous worldwide. He spent much of his time in the 1870s exhibiting the technical academy's products and inspecting the best technical schools abroad. He died in 1890 after an illness that began in 1879.

mentions of della vos

It was Runkle's proclamation of his discovery of the Russian system and his plan for utilizing it not only in engineering but also in general education, which marks the beginning of the manual training movement, the first stage in a period of discussion and experimentation in educational handwork which is still running its course...(5, p. 161).

The two experiments became the American sources of influences of the Russian system since Woodward adopted the principles and Runkle, the practices. Woodward had been experimenting with methods and devices for making engineering subjects more comprehensible for the students when he learned of the Russian plan. He made use of certain of its features in combination with his own methods and developed an Americanized Russian system which under his leadership brought the center of manual training in the United States from the East to St. Louis. Woodward is credited with the initiation of the manual training movement and he is considered the "father of manual training'.

Bennett (16, p. 46-47) drew some conclusions regarding the influences of the Russian system, which when considered objectively, reveal the impact of that plan even on present-day industrial arts. He points out that it gave an effective and economical substitute for apprenticeship which had not been able to provide the necessary numbers of workers for industry. It placed mechanic arts training on a pedagogical level by 7 shoving that these arts could be analyzed for their elements, which then could be taught as easily as elements of mathematics, language, and other `courses. The system demonstrated that one teacher could successfully teach a relatively large group at one time, instead of having to rely solely on individual instruction. Finally, Bennett states that the outstanding fact about the system was its use for the first time of scientific principles in analyzing the mechanic arts and of basing courses of instruction on them.

Source: Delmar W Olson, Technology and Industrial Arts: Derivation of Subject Matter from Technology with Implications for Industrial Arts (Ph.D. diss) Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, 1957, page 71; Winton U. Solberg, the University of Illinois, 1867-1894: An Intellectual and Cultural History Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1968, pages 140-145

delmar olson diss

The introduction of an industrial education into American public schools can be credited both to industry and to liberal educators of the day. The inclusion of industrial drawing as a required course in the public schools of Massachusetts in 1870 may be considered as the beginning of industrial education in this country, although, according to the historian Charles A. Bennett, (15, p. 439), Ohio probably had the first special teacher for drawing. Increasing demands for American industrial products at home and abroad with an increasing shortage of skilled workers, led influential manufacturers to advocate training for industry in the public schools; drawing instruction alone was not enough. The idea was studied by a number of educators throughout the country, among whom were John D. Runkle, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Calvin M. Woodward, dean of the polytechnic faculty of Washington University in St. Louis. In the search for a method for teaching industrial work in technical schools, Runkle learned of the plan for the training of engineers in use at the Imperial Technical School in Moscow, directed by Victor Della Vos. At the Centennial Exposition of 1876 in Philadelphia, this school had a display which seemed to so impress Runkle that he adopted the idea immediately and established a School of Mechanic Arts in Boston in which to carry on this Russian plan.

Manual Training

In manual training, pure and simple, only tools and methods of use are taught. The shop exercises are almost as abstract as in "long division." A mortise and tenon joint typifies nearly everything in joinery-the tenon may be single, double or multiple; it may be plain or dovetailed, or without a pin or wedge. The joint may be blind or open, rectangular or oblique. In its construction one may use the plane, the try-square, the bevel, the gauge, the saw, the bit, the chisel, the mallet, the knife, the vise, the bench hook; and it may be put together with paint or glue. However, before an elaborate joint can be properly undertaken, the theory and use of each tool, and how it can be put in order and kept so, should be carefully taught and learned by abundant practice. Beyond a few examples, possibly a single example, of synthetic construction for the sake of illustrating the application of general principles, the manual training school need not go. Similar statments can be made in reference to wood turning, wood carving, forging, tempering, molding, pattern making, metal fitting, etc. Almost the only thing a student should be able to show at the end of his training is the discipline, the knowledge and the clear insight he has gained. If he is able to make a merchantable article of any sort-a bureau, a horseshoe, a chisel, or a dynamo when he is through school-well and good; there can be no objection, but there would be serious objection to his stopping his studies at school for the purpose of making such articles.

It thus appears that the graduate of the manual training school has acquired no trade, though he is familiar with the underlying principles of many trades; he has earned no money, he has learned no business, he has not even an adequate notion of the practical and educational value of his experienced skill. These latter things are not the fruit of schooling; they come from subsequent experience. As the trained gymnast, has developed every muscle, co-ordinated physical actions, and learned to use his judgment and maintain his self-control at all times and in all positions, with no definite idea of how such training will serve him in life, so the broadly and rationally trained user of tools does not know in what emergency he will call to his aid the skill and training he has gained here.

Both he and the world have yet to rise to a proper appreciation of the trained intelligence which quickly comprehends the thought of a new mechanical appliance and the force of new conditions. It should now be clear that in every craft, 'whether lower or higher, there are certain foundation principles, mental and physical, which underlie actual practice, and that it is the province of the manual training school to furnish opportunity for the mastery of these foundation principles, and that its claim to be a school for general education permits it to go no further. Finally, in a single phrase, manual education is that department of general training whereby one acquires the mastery of tools and materials.

Source: Anonymous, Manufacturer and Builder 25, No 12 December 1893, page 286.

Historical Sketch.-

About the year 1868 Victor Della Vos, Director of the Imperial Technical School of St. Petersburg, published a report giving for the first time the correct method of tool instruction. In his school three years were spent in training, and three years in actual technical work. His method, which was that of separating instruction from construction, was not made known in this country until the Philadelphia exposition of 1876. The credit of calling attention to the Russian educational exhibit is due to president John D. Runkle of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who made a full report of their method of tool instruction to its Board of Trustees that year. In 1877 President Runkle opened shops for instruction in tool work, on the Russian plan, in the institute. Soon after the School of Mechanic Arts was opened as a sub-department of the institute for the instruction of mechanics not less than 15 years old. It had a two-year course of study, including drawing and English studies. The attendance at the school was never large. It was discontinued two or three years ago.

Source: Anonymous, Manufacturer and Builder 25, No 12 December 1893, page 286.

Meanwhile shop work for the sole purpose of instruction had been introduced into the Polytechnic School of Washington University, St. Louis, as early as 1874. In 1877 three shops were fitted for the complete round of tool work, and classes from preparatory schools were admitted. On the strength of that experience a distinct and separate preparatory school known as the St. Louis Manual Training School, was opened September 6, 1880.

The course of instruction covered three years, and was very broad and general. This school is now in its thirteenth year, with 300 students under the charge of a director and 14 assistants. The immediate and acknowledged success of the St. Louis school led to the establishment of the Chicago Manual Training School by the Commercial Club of that city. The school xvas opened February 4, 1884. The school has upwards of 300 pupils, all seats being occupied. Baltimore opened its Manual Training School on March 5, 1884, as a part of the public school system. Including some classes below ordinary high school grade, its enrollment is upwards of 500. Manual training was introduced into the High School of Toledo, Ohio, in December, 1884, and during the following year the Scott Manual Training School was built in connection with the high school building. Under joint management the school is open both to boys and girls as a part of the public school system.

Manual training was introduced into the College (high school) of the city of New York, in 1884. The Miller "Manual Labor" School, now very nearly a school for manual training, was established at Crozet, Albermarle county, Va., early in the 80's.

Source: Anonymous, Manufacturer and Builder 25, No 12 December 1893, page 286.

Philadelphia opened its Central Manual Training High School in 1885. The school was soon filled to its utmost, and a second one was opened by the School Board. The last report shows that these schools are crowded with a total enrollment of 576 pupils. The Cincinnati Technical School, (really a school for manual training,) was opened by a corporation in 1886. Following these schools the growth of manual training bas been rapid, and the interest is still increasing. It is impossible to give even an approximate list of the schools established either independently or in connection with existing high schools. Nearly every State agricultural and mechanical college has a manual training department of about the high school grade, conspicuously those of Kansas, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, North Carolina and Ohio.

Source: Anonymous, Manufacturer and Builder 25, No 12 December 1893, page 286.

A search on advanced google books for evidence of the use the term, "Instruction Sheet" gives us some interesting results:


"A Sturdy Chair for Little Ones"

This image comes from Popular Science Monthly November 1929, page 115, shows "instruction sheets" had even penetrated into "popular literature"

Instruction Sheets Introduced in America, 1880s see examples of instruction sheets in this 1880s woodworker's manual, Woodworking Tools: How to Use Them Instruction Sheets Introduced in America, 1880s

Samuel Jesse Vaughn and Arthur Beverly Mays, Content and Methods of the Industrial Arts? 1924- pages 26-27; Hugh Bernard Wood, Foundations of Curriculum Planning and Development? 1960, page 456

Source: Henry Holman, Pestalozzi: An Account of His Life and Work London: Longmans, 1908, page 242

1913 One of the first records of the use of the term "Instruction Sheet" is: United States Office of Education

- Bulletin? no ? - 1913 - Page 131:

"The demonstration method versus the instruction sheet method in teaching industrial ... of related information taught in junior high school woodworking."

However, Fred D Crawshaw, a prominent figure in manual arts from about 1910, seems to be the first recorded user of the term.

Two or more communities combine to employ an itinerant instructor who gives a certain amount of time each week in personal instruction in each of the school districts in a circuit. While conducting a class he gives the necessary demonstrations and explains instruction sheets and blue-prints which he leaves with his class to enable individuals to continue work in his absence and until his next visit.

By this means the small town may secure the services of a high class instructor who could not be employed by any one community alone, for the reason that it could not afford to pay his salary. By some supervision on the part of a local teacher, as much work and probably as good work can be done as would be accomplished if the instructor met his class every day.

There is, therefore, offered the small community, both from the standpoint of quantity and quality of work, a satisfactory plan of conducting manual arts classes. It should be true also, with the kind of an instructor who may be secured for this work, that the proper vocational emphasis can be given to the course of study. In this connection it may be well to emphasize the importance of manual arts to the rural community, and the importance, also, of manual arts teachers emphasizing the agricultural needs in such communities by having the projects in the classwork those which can be used in a rural community.

Source: Fred D Crawshaw, Manual Arts for Vocational Ends Peoria, IL: 1912 (Fourth Edition 1920)

1436. Crawshaw, F. D. Organization in the teaching of manual and industrial arts. Industrial-arts magazine, 2:101-4, September 1914.
(Ray Stombaugh, A Survey Of The Movements Culminating In Industrial Arts Education In Secondary Schools New YorK: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936; (Contributions To Education. No. 670) page 153:

"In 1914, Crawshaw suggested a form of instruction sheet somewhat in the nature of a review sheet to be handed out to the pupils following a demonstration as an aid in their individual work."

Fred. D. Crawshaw, "Organization of Teaching Material." Industrial Arts Magazine 2 October 1914, pages 151-57]

"This is the introductory article of an important series on a phase of manual training, etc., never before treated in an educational magazine."

The second article of series is in October issue of Industrial Arts Magazine, pages 151-57,

under title "Organization of teaching material-Examples for the teacher of manual and industrial arts."

Industrial Arts Magazine ORGANIZATION OF TEACHING MATERIAL Fred. D. Crawshaw, University of Wisconsin (Eighth Article)



Suggestive Methods of Teaching Course in Furniture and Cabinet Making.

Group I. Collect catalogs giving good illustrations of furniture. Reference reading in books on woodwork. Consider in detail the handling of tools. Short cuts. Methods of duplication. Economy of time in systematic methods.

Group II. Consider the good and bad in design. State principles in designing which can be used by class. Outline steps in designing some particular piece of furniture. Emphasize necessity of working over a, design until it is as nearly perfect as possible. Work for a growth in appreciation.

Explain use of machines. Dangers. Give cautions. Explain order in which machines should be used. Economy of time in use of machines.

Group III. Required readings. Shop trip to furniture factory, with report. Consider methods of factory not possible in school shop. Classify woods as soft, medium, hard.

Group IV. Differences between cabinet and furniture construction. Details of clamping and fastening. Schools and period& of design. Use of heavy cabinet machinery. Factory methods.

Group V. Talks on finishing. Samples of finishes. School and commercial manufacture of finishes. Classify finishes and their ingredients.

Source: Fred. D. Crawshaw, "ORGANIZATION OF TEACHING MATERIAL(Eighth Article) ... EXAMPLES FOR THE SUPERVISOR OF MANUAL AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS..., Suggestive Methods of Teaching Course in Furniture and Cabinet Making." Industrial Arts Magazine

1915 The second record found is 1915:

Popular Mechanics Magazine ? - - June 1915, Page 129: -

"The cabinet scraper is for putting a fine finish on woodwork. The expansion pliers with adjustable jaws combine a small wrench and plier. ..."

Bibliography on the origin and impact of the concept of "Instruction Sheet" (also "checklist")

1913 the first record of the use of the term "Instruction Sheet" is this: United States Office of Education

- Bulletin? no ? - 1913 - Page 131:

"The demonstration method versus the instruction sheet method in teaching industrial ... of related information taught in junior high school woodworking."

1915 The second record found is 1915:

Popular Mechanics Magazine ? - - June 1915, Page 129: -

"The cabinet scraper is for putting a fine finish on woodwork. The expansion pliers with adjustable jaws combine a small wrench and plier. ..."

The advantages of the instruction sheet method are apparent. It permits the apt and industrious boy to progress as rapidly as he is capable while at the same time it gives the slow boy time to complete each unit thoroly before being dragged from it by the more rapid in the class. It permits boys who are absent, either for part time work or on account of sickness, to begin at the point where they left the work, with no loss. It facilitates the establishing of standards by which credit may be awarded. It makes possible, when used in connection with note-books, the accumulation of a valuable fund of reference material. If the boy is to be depended upon to use in after years the supplementary material which the school gives him, he must receive that material in such form that it will be taken away with him.

Source: VERNE A. BIRD, "A VOCATIONAL COURSE FOR MACHINE SHOP APPRENTICES", Manual Training Magazine edited by Charles Alpheus Bennett, William Thomas Bawden Published by Manual Arts Press, 1919 Item notes: v.20 (1918-1919)

Bird was Supervisor of Industrial Education, Rochester, N. Y.

The printed instruction sheet, for example, would be economical compared to oral instructions in the light of the results obtained. The sheet itself may be planned in such a way as to save space without decreasing the effectiveness of the device. If the print is too small, the conservation of material cripples the effectiveness of the device and no genuine economy has been effected. Here again comes in the idea of permanency of the device. A device that can be used only once, or a very few times at most, wastes materials to no good purpose. For instance, a printed form for a daily lesson plan would be wasteful and ineffective if the items in it were changed every semester, or every year or two, so that the old forms not used up would have to be discarded. This conservation of materials should be taken into account in working out devices, so that the greatest care will be exercised in making the devices as perfect and permanent as possible.

Source: Hubert Wilbur Nutt, The Supervision of Instruction Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1920, page 103

1919 C R Mann et al, Committee on Education and Special Training: -- A Review of Its Work During 1918, Washington, DC: US War Department, June 1919, page 11:

Paragraph content

Mann Committe's report -- Instruction Manual No 4 -- on Carpenters

As 1920s Progressed, Two Contrasting Concepts of Teaching the Industrial Arts Developed

click here for Part D, survey of Instruction Sheets concepts as separate page

1921 Verne A. Bird and L. A. Pechstein, "General Intelligence, Machine Shop Work, and Educational Guidance in the Junior High School", The School Review 29, No. 10 December 1921, page pp. 783:

1931 Homer J. Smith, "Review: A Superior Treatise on Trade and Industrial Teaching", The School Review 39, No. 4 April 1931, page 311.

R W Selvidge, "The Real Job", Industrial Education Magazine 25 August 1923, pages 35-38

Reading this article gives one a conviction that "industrial education" was in a permanent state of turmoil. Evidently the "purpose" of industrial eduation programs were being scrutinized, especially about these three points:

1. What we are trying to do.

2. Why we are trying to do it.

3. How we are trying to do it.

. A prominent figure in IE during the 1920s, R W Selvidge wrote for IIndustrial Education Magazine designed, it seems, for several reasons, including to address the three issues above. Click here for a text, with images, of what Selvidge argues teachers should be achieving with their students.

R W Selvidge, "Job sheet" Industrial Education Magazine 25 July 1923 pages 12-13

Emanuel Ericson "The Use of Books in Shop Teaching." Industrial Education Magazine30 October 1928, pages 140-141.

Verne C. Fryklund, "Instruction Sheets and Principles of Teaching." Industrial Arts Magazine 16 February 1927, pages 41-44.

Robert W. Selvidge, Individual Instruction Sheets Peoria, Ill.: The Manual Arts Press, 1926. 263 p.

W D Stoner Master's Thesis on Selvidge Instruction Sheets Ohio State University 1929

Hoyt H. London, Individual Instruction Sheets in Industrial Arts Teaching: An Experimental Comparison of the Job Sheet and Operation Sheet Methods. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1934. 235 p.

Dennis R. Herschbach, Technology and Efficiency: Competencies as Content Journal of Technology Education 3, No 2 Spring 1992

Historical Overview of "Competencies"

[needs editing]

The systematic design of technical instruction based on competencies has a rich tradition. Charles Allen's influential work The Instructor, the Man and the Job, pub- lished in 1919, demonstrated the usefulness of organizing instruction into logical units which could be standardized among different training locations. The effectiveness of in- struction was no longer based solely on the ability of the individual instructor, but was also due to the quality of the design itself, which served to guide the instructor and provided the basis for planning, conducting and evaluating instruction. Subsequent work by W. W. Charters (1923), Robert Selvidge (1923; 1926), Selvidge and Fryklund (1930) and others helped to develop a framework for the systematic analysis of instructional content and the design of instructional materials.

These early efforts were applied during World War II to the training of military personnel and production workers. The effectiveness of deliberately planned and systematically organized training was clearly demonstrated. Following the war, government groups and private industry, convinced that quality and productivity could be improved through systematic training, invested in research and development. This work established the foundation for contemporary instructional design practice. Theoretical constructs were formulated along with practical procedures which helped to guide instructional development and implementation. There was a direct impact on public education as new ideas found a place within the educa- tional literature. The military and industry, for example, originally funded much of the work carried out by influential researchers such as Miller (1962), Mager (1962), Gagne (1965) and Butler (1972). The results of their work were applied to the design of public instruction.

The scope of activity also expanded significantly. At least five lines of research which impacted on instructional design were pursued:

1. attention was focused on the need to clearly specify objectives in observable and measurable terms;
2. measurement and evaluation concepts were advanced, making it possible not only to directly measure learning outcomes but also to assess the efficiency of the various instructional components;
3. learning theory was merged with instructional design theory;
4. advances were made in the use of instructional materials and educational technology; and
5. instructional system models were formulated.


Selvidge: Influencing the Field

One effort to develop a program of study for industrial arts based on competencies centers around the work of R.W. Selvidge at the University of Missouri. Selvidge's model fits within the Tyler framework, and it has continued to influence instructional design.

Although he was mainly concerned with trade and industrial training rather than industrial arts education, the analysis approach advocated by Selvidge was sanctioned in the 1930s by the American Vocational Association as being appropriate for industrial arts. The aim was to bring elements of manual training, manual arts and vocational education together. Many industrial arts educators adopted the analysis approach to the selection of content material. Several variations of this approach were widely used, and job and trade analysis are still the dominant method of selecting course content material for technical instruction (Herschbach, 1984).

Analysis, as developed by Selvidge, was an adaptation and alteration of elements from both manual training and manual arts. It incorporated the shop project as an essential aspect of instruction, as well as industrial processes, material and related information. Content was selected by an analysis of a trade or occupation for materials that would achieve the instructional objectives of the course. Instruction was broken down into units entailing operations and jobs. The content selected tended to be heavy on the manipulative side, and this was viewed as being appropriate for pre-vocational or vocational development.

While there is variation among advocates, the basic method and sequence are as follows:

The first step is to determine the objectives of the program of studies; these comprise "the information skills, attitudes, interests, habits of work we expect the boy to have when he has completed his period of training" (Selvidge and Fryklund, 1930, p. 36).

Secondly, an analysis of the subject field should be made in order to arrive at the main divisions of the field. For instance, "a course for automotive mechanics might logically be organized into such divisions as engine, power transmissions, chassis, electrical and body repair; these main divisions are then further analyzed" (Giachino and Gallington, 1954, p. 68).

The next step is the selection from the analysis of those items that are appropriate for the length of the course, student ability, course level, available equipment, and the general objectives. The total course content material comprises a list of: "things you should be able to do" (operative skills), "things you should know" (information necessary for successful performance of the skills), and "what you should be" (attitudes and habits necessary for successful performance).

Lastly, the course content material should be formulated into a course of study, with teaching materials organized and arranged for instructional use. Instructional sheets are often used for this purpose. Prac- tice work, production and individual projects are used.

Selvidge developed a procedure through which technical instruction could be systematically designed by the classroom teacher. Much as Charles Allen (1919) had done before him, Selvidge provided a way by which instruction could be standardized and instructional quality resulted from the design process itself. Efficiency was to be the outcome. Selvidge's wide success, however, provoked opposition. Some considered that instruction was too vocational to be appropriate for industrial arts.

Source: Dennis R. Herschbach, Technology and Efficiency: Competencies as Content Journal of Technology Education 3, No 2 Spring 1992

Patrick N. Foster, "Industrial Arts/Technology Education as a Social Study: The Original Intent?"Journal of Technology Education 6, No 2 Spring 1995

Theodore Lewis and Karen F. Zuga, "A Conceptual Framework of Ideas and Issues in Technology Education" April 30, 2005
(an online pdf article, it includes background on the historical development of application of teaching/learning in Industrial Arts, noting in particular the contributions of such educator-theoreticians to the field as John Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget to ]

The checklists provided two main benefits....

First, they helped with memory recall, especially with mundane matters that are easily overlooked in patients undergoing more drastic events.

(When you're worrying about what treatment to give a woman who won't stop seizing, it's hard to remember to make sure that the head of her bed is in the right position.)

A second effect was to make explicit the minimum, expected steps in complex processes. Pronovost was surprised to discover how often even experienced personnel failed to grasp the importance of certain precautions.

In a survey of I.C.U. staff taken before introducing the ventilator checklists, he found that half hadn't realized that there was evidence strongly supporting giving ventilated patients antacid medication. Checklists established a higher standard of baseline performance.


They could have required Model 299 pilots to undergo more training. But it was hard to imagine having more experience and expertise than Major Hill, who had been the U.S. Army Air Corps' chief of flight testing. Instead, they came up with an ingeniously simple approach: they created a pilot's checklist, with step-by-step checks for takeoff, flight, landing, and taxiing. Its mere existence indicated how far aeronautics had advanced. In the early years of flight, getting an aircraft into the air might have been nerve-racking, but it was hardly complex. Using a checklist for takeoff would no more have occurred to a pilot than to a driver backing a car out of the garage. But this new plane was too complicated to be left to the memory of any pilot, however expert.

With the checklist in hand, the pilots went on to fly the Model 299 a total of 1.8 million miles without one accident. The Army ultimately ordered almost thirteen thousand of the aircraft, which it dubbed the B-17. And, because flying the behemoth was now possible, the Army gained a decisive air advantage in the Second World War which enabled its devastating bombing campaign across Nazi Germany.

Medicine today has entered its B-17 phase. Substantial parts of what hospitals do-most notably, intensive care-are now too complex for clinicians to carry them out reliably from memory alone. I.C.U. life support has become too much medicine for one person to fly.

Yet it's far from obvious that something as simple as a checklist could be of much help in medical care. Sick people are phenomenally more various than airplanes. A study of forty-one thousand trauma patients-just trauma patients-found that they had 1,224 different injury-related diagnoses in 32,261 unique combinations for teams to attend to. That's like having 32,261 kinds of airplane to land. Mapping out the proper steps for each is not possible, and physicians have been skeptical that a piece of paper with a bunch of little boxes would improve matters much.

In 2001, though, a critical-care specialist at Johns Hopkins Hospital named Peter Pronovost decided to give it a try. He didn't attempt to make the checklist cover everything; he designed it to tackle just one problem, the one that nearly killed Anthony DeFilippo: line infections. On a sheet of plain paper, he plotted out the steps to take in order to avoid infections when putting a line in.

Doctors are supposed to

(1) wash their hands with soap,
(2) clean the patient's skin with chlorhexidine antiseptic,
(3) put sterile drapes over the entire patient,
(4) wear a sterile mask, hat, gown, and gloves, and
(5) put a sterile dressing over the catheter site once the line is in.

Check, check, check, check, check.

These steps are no-brainers; they have been known and taught for years. So it seemed silly to make a checklist just for them. Still, Pronovost asked the nurses in his I.C.U. to observe the doctors for a month as they put lines into patients, and record how often they completed each step. In more than a third of patients, they skipped at least one.

Source: Atul Gawande, "The Checklist; If something so simple can transform intensive care, what else can it do?" New Yorker December 10, 2007