|Glossary Intro and Glossary Annexes|
Source: George Ashdown Audsley, Amateur Joinery in the Home: A Practical Manual for the Amateur Joiner on the Construction of Articles of Domestic Furniture. Boston: Small, Maynard, and Co, 1916, p. 29.
SAB: Select and Better
a lumber grading term
S4S: Surfaced Four Sides
Indicates that the lumber has been planed smooth on all four sides. See Jointer/Planer syllabus.
Saber Sawclick here for extended entry
See Shop Safety
[in progress 4-9-07]
For decorating, engraving or cutting wood, glass or other hard materials -- using air or steam for pressure -- a stream of fine sand is projected upon a hard surface. Also for removing scale and/or rust from iron and steel.
Historically, sandblasting emerges in the latter part of the nineteenth century as a technique used in mining. As a technique in woodworking, sandblasting's first application is ?
The example on the left, from Making of America database, is for 1880. (My Barnhart Etymological Dictionary and the OED claim the first use of "sand-blasting" circa 1871, although exact source is obscure.)
Source:[Anonymous] "The World's Work", Scribners monthly, an illustrated magazine for the people. 20, Issue 3 July 1880 pages 476-479.
Our first adventure into texturing was in the mid-1980s, when we were making wooden fruit, mainly apples.... [A]n order to make 500 apple-shaped boxes in applewood for the New York Times (the Big Apple), with "New York Times" engraved on them. Sandblasting seemed a possibility for the engraving. ... While trying out sandblasting as a technique for putting letters on wood, we realized it had a greater potential for surface decoration. We explored the effect on various types of wood, both side grain and end grain, looking at pattern and texture, trying different types of masking and stencils, creating surfaces that ranged from a weathered driftwood look to finely detailed designs with crisp, hard edges.
Source: Liz & Michael O'Donnell, Decorating Turned Wood: The Maker's Eye. New York: Sterling, 2002. Page 128
[temporary image -- sandblasted bowl by my friend Ron Grant]
According to Michael Ettema, research curator at Grand Rapids Public Museum,"Powered sanding machines probably appeared in furniture factories in the latter part of the nineteenth century, together with power transmission systems."
Early versions of power sanders -- simple devices -- consisted of sandpaper sheets attached to a rotating disk or drum, or a sandpaper belt rotated between two cylinders. Actual sanding operations required that workpieces be hand-held or placed on a table and advanced to the sandpaper by hand. Gauging the amount of wood to be removed depended on the operator's judgment. More complex variations of the machine included a rotating sandpaper disk or belt mounted on a flexible frame moved by hand across a large, flat workpiece such as a table top. "Machines that automatically fed the work to sanding drums appeared in trade literature by the 1880s."
Source: Michael Ettema, "Technological Innovation and Design Economics in Furniture Manufacture", Winterthur Portfolio 16 1981, pages 197-223.
Sandpaperfor extended entry, click here
SawSee Circular Saw See also Japanese Flush Cut and Rip Dozuki Saws
Saw Horsesalso known as Carpenter's Trestles. On Carpenter's Trestles, "In 'ripping' planks or pieces of wood of a few feet in length, a pair of carpenter's trestles will be required; and these will allow a knee to be placed on the plank to hold it steady, if necessary, either in ripping or cross-cutting."
screw (a) 1404 scrwe: cylinder with a spiral groove or ridge, screw; 1497, skrewe.
Evidently borrowed from Middle French escroue nut, cylindrical socket, hole in which a screw turns. Traces from Gallo-Romance; but even earlier, scroba, altered from Latin scrobis hole.
Germanic forms apparently derived through Low German schruve from Old French. The spelling with -ew was influenced by dew, flew, etc. The figure tive sense of a means of pressure or coercion is found in English in 1648-49. —v. to turn as one turns a screw. twist. 1599, in Ben Jonson's Every Man in His Humour, from the noun.
Sources: W L Goodman, The History of Woodworking Tools, London: Bell, 1966; Robert K Barnhart, ed., The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology New York: H W Wilson, 1988; Witold Rybczynski, One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw, 2000; M Shayt, "One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw", Technology and Culture 2001.
1799 screwdriver, as noun.
Sources: Robert K Barnhart, ed., The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology New York: H W Wilson, 1988; Witold Rybczynski, One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw, 2000; M Shayt, "One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw", Technology and Culture 2001.
Witold Rybczynski, One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw, 2000
M Shayt, "One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw", Technology and Culture 2001
A saw with a fine wire or narrow flat blade. Used to cut intricate shapes and inside contours. The blade has a short, up-and-down stroke like a sewing machine. For more click here
architecture. A dictionary of the science and practice of architecture,
building, carpentry, etc., from the earliest ages to the present time,
froming a comprehensive work of reference for the use of architects,
builders, carpenters, masons, engineers, students, professional men,
and amateurs. By Peter Nicholson ... Edited by Edward Lomax and Thomas
Gunyon ... Illustrated with two hundred and thirty engravings on steel,
mostly from working drawings in detail. In two volumes.
Author: Nicholson, Peter, 1765-1844.
Publication Info: New York,: Johnson, Fry & co., [185-?].
Collection: Making of America Books
Click on this link
DESICCATION, (Latin, desicco, to dry), the act of making dry; it is the chemical operation of drying bodies, and is effected in different modes, according to the nature of the substance. The term, Desiccating Process, has been applied to a patented invention, (Davison and Symington's Patent), for seasoning or drying a great variety of substances. It is said to have been used with success in seasoning wood.
Rule number two: Listen to your machines while they are operating. Like operating your automobile, be aware of strange sounds. While a machine is operating, if something doesn't sound right, turn it off!
Rule number three: On tablesaws, feed smaller workpieces into rotating blade with a Push Stick, and/or use Featherboards. Always feed work into the rotation of the blades and/or cutters. A rotating circular blade on a tablesaw throws wood! Don't rip on a Radial Arm Saw. A router bit, lose in its Collet, rotating at 24,000 RPMs, is a lethal weapon.
Rule Number four: Keep a push stick or push block nearby to complete cuts.
number five: For
all shaper and router operations, wear safety glasses, a dust mask, and
Rule number six: When feeding workpieces into rotating cutters and/or bits, avoid awkward hand positions; always keep your hands clear of the cutters.
Rule number seven: Before installing cutters or making adjustments, always unplug the tablesaw, the shaper or the router.
Rule number eight: When routing freehand, clamp stock to a work surface.
Rule number nine: Do not shape or rout work that is warped or that contains loose knots or foreign objects such as screws or nails.
Rule number ten: On shaper spindles and router collets, watch constantly for Runout
Sources: Alan Marco "Woodworkers' First Aid" Fine Woodworking?
This narrows the groove of the upper belt taking up the slack created by raising the assembly. It is beautiful in its simplicity but difficult to describe. When the machines set unused for years it is common for the center floating portion of the assembly to stick from rust or dried grease.
Without knowing how the mechanism works this creates real problems for new owners. If you crank the adjuster too hard the aluminum supports for the adjuster rod will break off. Sadly, I have seen way too many in that condition and have repaired a bunch of them.
The speed changer has two operating ranges depending on how you orient the belts. Low range gives rpm from around 450 to 1800. High range from around 2000 to 6600 rpm.
One disadvantage is that most lathe and drill press work are in the low range and the table saw operates in the high range so belt changing is necessary when changing modes.
A second disadvantage is that the two belt system creates a lot of power loss between the motor and spindle.
When you start with 1/2 HP that doesn't leave a lot. It still works pretty good for most lathe and drill press work but really can be a problem in saw mode.
Many users will remove the speed changer pulley and go to direct drive for table saw use. Sadly, this requires reversing the motor pulley orientation also so if you do it often it can be a real pain.
That is why variable speed dc or ac motors are really nice to have. They make the machine the best of both worlds.
Since the table saw is also the most compromised function of the multipurpose machine, the ideal shop in my opinion will have a nice table saw to complement the 10ER, space permitting of course.
[Below is a cut=away of the speed changing mechanism used on Mark IV and later models of Shopsmith. In addition, notice on the upper right portion of the image a cutaway of the "quill and lever" setup.]
A second meaning identifies the "basic elements on the back of a Windsor chair", that is the slender round pieces of wood that stretch from "sockets" the Windsor's seat to the "hoop-back". Below the seat are another set of slender pieces of wood, the "stretchers", similar to spindles, whose function is to stabilize the Windsor's legs.
Click here for an extended entry on the steel square
These are terms applied to the upright and lateral members of a framework, such as a cabinet door. Mostly, stiles run the full length of the door's frame, and rails are fitted between them, usually with mortise and tenon joints. (The space between the stiles and rails is filled in with a panel.) In a door, according to its mode of "hanging", stiles are often often identified according to whether the stile is the "hinge" stile or the "closing" stile.